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Spain, Italy and the United Kingdom,    cipalities. “The problem will persist in   the need to convert bus fleets in par-
            to take measures to ensure air could be   many cities, whether diesels are there    ticular, which had to be converted and
            cleaned, and human health protected.   or not”, remarked Gerd Landsberg, Chief   modified for the depots.
            The affected German cities and munici-  Executive of the city and municipal asso-  The Deputy of the State Parliament and
            palities are now under massive pressure   ciation, in a round table discussion on the   Minister of Economics of Baden- Würt tem-
            to act. This has sparked a discussion over   German radio station Deutschlandradio [4].   berg, Dr. Nicole Hoffmeister-Kraut, want
            potential entry restrictions for vehicles   For one thing, the road traffic is far from   to see an end to what they deem “subjec-
            which fail to meet the limit values under   the only culprit: “it is partly the shipping   tive diesel bashing”. “What we need is
            real-world driving conditions.    traffic, and there are drifts which differ   not blame-mongering but constructive
                                              considerably from one city to the next”,   dialogue to help make the vehicle-emis-
                                              stated Landsberg. He wants to highlight   sions debate more objective and meet
            VEHICLES IN GERMAN CITIES         a point that is currently being overlooked   our responsibilities for employees nation-
                                              amid the media “diesel bashing”: traffic   wide and the forward-looking industry,
            It remains to be seen whether retrofitting   also generates fine dust, almost inde-  while also addressing concerns over the
            will achieve sufficient results to ward off   pendently of the drive system. Namely,   environment and sustainability”, said
            the threat of entry bans for diesel vehicles.   such factors include turbulence and   Hoffmeister-Kraut in an interview [6]. To
            Industry experts are sceptical, especially   abrasion from road surfaces as well as   ensure the public can remain
            when the issue of a hardware interven-  wear and tear on tyres and brakes [5].   mobile, they are not entertaining further
            tion arises. Applying a motor is a highly   These emissions are also generated by   discussions on traffic restrictions such as
            sensitive task, with the systems involved   “local emission-free” electric vehicles.  drive-in bans or a city toll. Instead, the
            fine-tuned to each other. If the exceeding   But Landsberg raised another prob-  levers include intelligent traffic control,
            of the limit values were to continue and   lem: the problem would not go away,   increased expansion of public transport,
            thus put driving bans on the agenda,   because many of the vehicles, such as   road infrastructure and car sharing. “To
            excluding these diesel cars would not   those used for deliveries, would not be   make a switch to alternative mobility
            necessarily be cause for celebration on   eligible for retrofitting in the event of   options feasible [...], they have to be sig-
            the part of the affected cities and muni-  any doubt. Another problem involved   nificantly improved”, she admits.

                                              2 QUESTIONS FOR …

                                              MTZ _ The issue of whether to ban incoming   more quickly. But this should only be
                                              vehicles with diesel engines is currently a hot   done as a last resort. It would be prefer-
                                              talking point. What is your view?  able to upgrade diesel vehicles via soft-
                                              KRAUTZBERGER _ There is an urgent need   ware updates or retrofit them with
                                              to clean the air in cities so that municipal-
                                                                                  modern, well-functioning exhaust gas
           © The UBA Umweltbundesamt          for nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and protect    I clearly see the pressure car manufac-
                                                                                aftertreatment systems. Here, however,
                                              ities can meet EU-wide air quality limits
                                                                                turers will face – particularly in terms of
                                              the health of the citizens living there. In
                                                                                costs incurred.
                                              2016, the annual average NO 2  limit was
                                              exceeded at 57 % of inner-city measure-
                                                                                defined in Europe will be infeasible
                                              Among the main culprits are the Euro 5
                                                                                unless modern diesel engines are used.
                                              and Euro 6 diesel vehicles. On average, a
            Maria Krautzberger                ment points near traffic in Germany.   German carmakers warn that fleet targets
            President of the                  Euro 5 diesel engine emits about 45 times   Diesel vehicles are not necessarily
            German Federal Environment Agency
                                              more nitrogen oxide than an equivalent   required for climate protection – or at
                                              standard gasoline engine, and a present-   least are not currently doing much to
                                              day Euro 6 diesel still 25 times as much.   help. This is because manufacturers are
                                              At highly polluted locations, even if   increasingly relying on heavier and more
                                              future RDE diesel passenger cars are used,    powerful cars, for which more efficient
                                              compliance with air quality limits will,   diesel engines are used. In 2015, newly
                                              realistically, not happen until after 2025.   registered gasoline- and diesel-engined
                                              Imposing a ban on incoming vehicles   cars generated an identical CO 2  average
                                              would keep diesel cars with high nitro-  equivalent to 129 g/km. Therefore, talk
                                              gen oxide emissions out of inner cities   of diesel as a means of rescuing the
                                              and bring cleaner cars onto the market   climate is out of the question.
            ATZ worldwide  09|2017                                                                           11
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