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ALUMINUM  Smart Developments

              Case Study    The impact of the application of aluminum

              01 01         FORD F-150

             Steel has traditionally been the major material used for   Regarding the materials used for automobile bodies, there are   when will this trend take off with mass-produced vehicles? The   the door panels. Which part will be next? “The roof”, was
             automobile construction. However, in order to meet today’s   four major trends: all-aluminum; full use of steel, such as   impact on general consumers of the all-aluminum body structure   Niikura’s reply. “To apply aluminum to the roof, it’s essential to
             severe fuel efficiency requirements, the application of other   ultra-high tensile strength steel; a hybrid of steel and aluminum;   F-150 has been considerable. The fact that such a representative   change the outer side panels to aluminum, and that requires the
             materials is progressing to replace steel. UACJ R&D Division   and multi-material (steel, aluminum and CFRP), which is currently   North American vehicle adopted aluminum created powerful   development of aluminum alloys with better formability. For
             General Manager Akio Niikura talked to us about the ways   becoming popular.                                        images of ‘Aluminum is cool’ and ‘Aluminum is more advanced’.   aluminum manufacturers, the aluminum roof is the ultimate goal.”
             aluminum is now being applied to automobiles.                                                                       This has provided a major impetus for switching to aluminum. It’s
                                                                Switching to an all-aluminum body structure is progressing in    estimated that the volume of aluminum body sheets used for a             Akio Niikura, Ph.D.
             The weight of automobiles affects cruising distance, so the main   North America. The Ford F-150 took the initiative in this   vehicle in North America will dramatically increase by about 10
             merit of using aluminum for automobiles is its effect on vehicle   movement. The use of aluminum for large pick-up trucks has had   times, from 6.3kg in 2012 to 61kg in 2025.               General Manager,
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Development Department II & III,
             weight reduction. Aluminum is excellent in terms of strength and   outstanding weight reduction results: in the case of the F-150, the                                                       Research & Development Division,
             ductility, but it cannot match steel in ease of forming because of   total vehicle weight was reduced by about 320 kilograms. The   The flow of switching to aluminum body panels began with the   UACJ Corporation
             its inferiority in elongation and shape-freezing properties.  switch to aluminum began with the larger and luxury vehicles, but   bonnet, extended to the trunk lid and back door, and then over to

                                                                                                                                    Small overlap test                                                                                     Motor Fan illustrated
                                                                                                 FORD F-150
    Motor Fan illustrated
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Motor Fan illustrated
    Motor Fan illustrated
                                                                                                                                                                                              Small overlap frontal crash tests are
                                                                                                                                                                                              conducted by the Institute for Highway Safety
                                                                                                                                                                                              (IIHS). In the test, 25% of a vehicle’s front end
                                                                                                                                                                                              on the driver’s side strikes a rigid barrier at
                                                                                                                                                                                              40mph (64kph). The overlap percentage is    ALUMINUM  Smart Developments
                                                                                                                                                                                              much lower than in a conventional 40% off-set
                                                                                                                                                                                              crash, which means the strength required for
                                                                                                                                                                                              the cabin becomes greater.
    ALUMINUM  Smart Developments
    ALUMINUM  Smart Developments
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          ALUMINUM  Smart Developments
                                                                                                                                                                                              In all the crash tests, including small overlap
                                                                                                                                                                                              tests, the Ford F-150 has been evaluated as
    02                                                                                                                                                                                        GOOD, the highest score.                    03

                                                                                                                                   The issue of aluminum recyclability                            Region          Approach

                                                                                                                                 Aluminum alloys feature high recyclability but recycled rolled materials become   Long-term target for required fuel
                                                                                                                                 castings which are now often used for parts like engine cylinder blocks. As the   Europe  efficiency: CO 2  emissions of
                                                                                                                                 change from internal combustion engines to electric motors intensifies, which   95g/km by 2021
                                                                                                                                 parts recycled aluminum alloys can be used for will become an important issue.
                                                                                                                                                                                                          Newly introduced fuel-efficiency
              Impact of the Ford F-150                                                                                                                                                                    standards to be reached by
                                                                                                                                                                                                  North   2025: fuel-efficiency of 54.5
             The F-150 is the best-selling vehicle in North America and the core                                                                                                                 America  mpg (23.2km/ℓ) for passenger
                                                                                                                                                                                                          cars and small trucks; CO 2
             model of the Ford F-Series of pickup trucks. The complete model                                                                                                                              emissions up to 143g/mi
             change conducted in 2014, with a new steel frame clad in                                                                                                                                     (89g/km) for passenger cars
             aluminum body panels, attracted a lot of attention in the market.
             The use of aluminum alloys for the cabin and the cargo area
             reduced the weight by about 230 kilograms. The reduction in the                                                                                                                              Target fuel efficiency: 20.3km/ℓ
             total body weight of about 320 kilograms improved fuel efficiency                                                                                                                    Japan   (JC08 Mode) for gasoline-powered
             by up to 20% compared to previous models.                                                                                                                                                    passenger cars by 2020

                                                                                                                                                                                                                           PHOTO: FORD
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