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ALUMINUM  Smart Developments

 Case Study  The impact of the application of aluminum

 01 01  FORD F-150

 Steel has traditionally been the major material used for   Regarding the materials used for automobile bodies, there are   when will this trend take off with mass-produced vehicles? The   the door panels. Which part will be next? “The roof”, was
 automobile construction. However, in order to meet today’s   four major trends: all-aluminum; full use of steel, such as   impact on general consumers of the all-aluminum body structure   Niikura’s reply. “To apply aluminum to the roof, it’s essential to
 severe fuel efficiency requirements, the application of other   ultra-high tensile strength steel; a hybrid of steel and aluminum;   F-150 has been considerable. The fact that such a representative   change the outer side panels to aluminum, and that requires the
 materials is progressing to replace steel. UACJ R&D Division   and multi-material (steel, aluminum and CFRP), which is currently   North American vehicle adopted aluminum created powerful   development of aluminum alloys with better formability. For
 General Manager Akio Niikura talked to us about the ways   becoming popular.  images of ‘Aluminum is cool’ and ‘Aluminum is more advanced’.   aluminum manufacturers, the aluminum roof is the ultimate goal.”
 aluminum is now being applied to automobiles.  This has provided a major impetus for switching to aluminum. It’s
 Switching to an all-aluminum body structure is progressing in   estimated that the volume of aluminum body sheets used for a   Akio Niikura, Ph.D.
 The weight of automobiles affects cruising distance, so the main   North America. The Ford F-150 took the initiative in this   vehicle in North America will dramatically increase by about 10
 merit of using aluminum for automobiles is its effect on vehicle   movement. The use of aluminum for large pick-up trucks has had   times, from 6.3kg in 2012 to 61kg in 2025.   General Manager,
                                                                                   Development Department II & III,
 weight reduction. Aluminum is excellent in terms of strength and   outstanding weight reduction results: in the case of the F-150, the   Research & Development Division,
 ductility, but it cannot match steel in ease of forming because of   total vehicle weight was reduced by about 320 kilograms. The   The flow of switching to aluminum body panels began with the   UACJ Corporation
 its inferiority in elongation and shape-freezing properties.  switch to aluminum began with the larger and luxury vehicles, but   bonnet, extended to the trunk lid and back door, and then over to

             Small overlap test                                                                                     Motor Fan illustrated
 FORD F-150
 Motor Fan illustrated
                                                                                                                    Motor Fan illustrated
 Motor Fan illustrated
                                                                       Small overlap frontal crash tests are
                                                                       conducted by the Institute for Highway Safety
                                                                       (IIHS). In the test, 25% of a vehicle’s front end
                                                                       on the driver’s side strikes a rigid barrier at
                                                                       40mph (64kph). The overlap percentage is    ALUMINUM  Smart Developments
                                                                       much lower than in a conventional 40% off-set
                                                                       crash, which means the strength required for
                                                                       the cabin becomes greater.
 ALUMINUM  Smart Developments
 ALUMINUM  Smart Developments
                                                                                                                   ALUMINUM  Smart Developments
                                                                       In all the crash tests, including small overlap
                                                                       tests, the Ford F-150 has been evaluated as
 02                                                                    GOOD, the highest score.                    03

            The issue of aluminum recyclability                            Region          Approach

          Aluminum alloys feature high recyclability but recycled rolled materials become   Long-term target for required fuel
          castings which are now often used for parts like engine cylinder blocks. As the   Europe  efficiency: CO 2  emissions of
          change from internal combustion engines to electric motors intensifies, which   95g/km by 2021
          parts recycled aluminum alloys can be used for will become an important issue.
                                                                                   Newly introduced fuel-efficiency
 Impact of the Ford F-150                                                          standards to be reached by
                                                                           North   2025: fuel-efficiency of 54.5
 The F-150 is the best-selling vehicle in North America and the core      America  mpg (23.2km/ℓ) for passenger
                                                                                   cars and small trucks; CO 2
 model of the Ford F-Series of pickup trucks. The complete model                   emissions up to 143g/mi
 change conducted in 2014, with a new steel frame clad in                          (89g/km) for passenger cars
 aluminum body panels, attracted a lot of attention in the market.
 The use of aluminum alloys for the cabin and the cargo area
 reduced the weight by about 230 kilograms. The reduction in the                   Target fuel efficiency: 20.3km/ℓ
 total body weight of about 320 kilograms improved fuel efficiency         Japan   (JC08 Mode) for gasoline-powered
 by up to 20% compared to previous models.                                         passenger cars by 2020

                                                                                                    PHOTO: FORD
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